Unnoticed Microalbuminuria is Substantially Prevalent in Patients of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Peshawar

Pervez Mohammad, Aurangzeb ., Ejaz Hassan Khan

Abstract


Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is very common and diabetic nephropathy is one of its serious complications. Most often renal involvement comes in to consideration with advanced stages making management complicated and less efficient. An early detection of this complication can be used to modify the treatment strategies such that its progression can be substantially delayed.
Objective: To know the prevalence of undetected microalbuminuria in patients with type-2 diabetes in district Peshawar.
Material & Methods: Two hundreds diagnosed patients of diabetes-type 2 falling in the inclusion criteria and 40 normal healthy volunteers of the same age range were included in this study. The diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was based on WHO criteria. All the participants were screened for microalbuminuria using a single daytime spot urine specimen by Micral test strip method. Body mass index, blood pressure and HbA1c, of the participants were recorded.
Results: Out of two hundreds known patients of type 2 diabetes included in this study, the overall prevalence of microalbuminuria was 32.9%, (58.3% in males and 41.7% in females). The mean age of the patients was 53.76 + 11.27 years and the mean body mass index was 20.67 + 3.90 kg/m2. The mean duration of diabetes was 8.6 + 2.3 years. The mean random blood sugar level was 261.21 + 71.09 mg/dL and the mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA c) level was 7.05+ 1.5% respectively. 1

Conclusion: The results of this case-control study show presence of substantial previously undetected microalbuminuria in type 2
diabetic patients. Since microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes is an early sign of diabetes induced renal damage, an early detection of this damage (Diabetic nephropathy) can be used to plane early treatment strategies for this serious complication of diabetes that will be hoped to prove more beneficial and successful than when it is too late.


Keywords


WHO: World health organization, KPK: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. HbA1c: Glycosylated hemoglobin. GFR: Glomerular filtration rate. ACR: Albumin creatinine ratio. ESRF: End stage renal failure.

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