A Study of Direction and Obliquity of Diaphyseal Nutrient Foramina in Dried Adult Human Long Bones of Upper Limb in Pakistan

Ejaz Afzal, Fatima Sherin, Asad ullah, Zahid Irfan Marwat, Shagufta Naeem, Hamza Sattar Khan


Background: The circulation of blood in bones is necessary for the osteogenesis, maintenance of bone vitality, bone growth, repair
of fractures and other injuries. The nutrient foramina are holes that allow blood vessels to pass through bone cortex.
Objective: The aim was to observe the diaphyseal nutrient foramina in the upper limb long bones besides other parameters for
obliquity and direction.
Material and Methods: In the present study there were 90 long bones of upper limb (All the bones were well dried and cleaned).
The bones were 30 humerii, 30 radii and 30 ulnae. For each of the above bones the direction and the obliquity of the nutrient
foraminae were studied.
Results: As per results, the growing end theory ( To the elbow I go, from the knee I flee) was observed in case of obliquity and
direction of nutrient foraminae.
Conclusion: The results of the study confirmed the previous results regarding the direction and obliquity of the nutrient foraminae
in cases of long bones of upper limb. It also provided the clinical information about the nutrient foraminae which can be useful in
surgical procedures of orthopedics specially.


Diaphyseal Nutrient Foramina, Osteogenesis, Bone Vitality, Bone Cortex, Obliquity, Orthopedics.

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