Vitamin-D Level in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus of different Age and Sex: its Effects on BMI, Calcium Level

Zarghuna Khan, Munazza Khan, Sher Bahadur, Zafaruddin Khan, Yasir Khan, Hina Umair, Sahibzada Saeed Jan

Abstract


Background: Type II diabetes is one of vital health problems in Pakistan. Type 2 diabetic patients are more prone to develop
Vitamin-D deficiency and hypocalcaemia however, the effect of age, sex, ethnicity, BMI and socioeconomic status also has a role in
affecting the outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare Vitamin-D level in patients with type-2 Diabetic Mellitus of different
age and sex and to determine the association of vitamin-D level with BMI, calcium and blood sugar level.
Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine and compare the changes in Vitamin- D and serum calcium level in
patients with type- 2 diabetes mellitus with respect to their Body Mass Index (BMI), age, sex and ethnic groups.
Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study, carried out in the outpatient department of endocrine unit of
Hayatabad Medical Complex, Pakistan from 1st July 2018 to 31st august 2018. Using convenient sampling technique, patients with
known cases of Type II diabetes mellitus of all age groups, regardless of gender, ethnic group were consented to be part of the
study. Patients taking vitamin D and calcium supplements and patients with renal and liver diseases were excluded. For vitamin D
and Calcium concentration 5 ml blood was taken. Data was recorded on a structured Proforma and entered into SPSS version
22.0. For comparison student's t-test was used while Pearson correlation was used for determining the association between
vitamin-D, BMI, blood sugar level and calcium concentration, where P-value <0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: A total of 238 individuals with mean age of 51.24 ± 7.7 out of whom 103(49.2%) were males and 121(50.8%) were
females. The mean vitamin-D concentration was 17.86 ± 15.3 ng/ml and mean calcium level was 8.50 ± 0.6 mg/dL respectively.
Regarding vitamin D deficiency males were more affected as compared to females (p=0.04). However in case of calcium
concentration there was no significant difference (p=0.17). The relationship observed between blood sugar level and vitamin D was
weakly inverse (r =-0.035, P = 0.5). However the inverse relationship of sugar level and calcium was significant (r=-0.135, p=0.01).
Conclusion: Type-II diabetes mellitus leads may lead to low calcium levels where males are more prone to be affected. This
condition aggravates with increase in age. This study basically concludes that vitamin-D deficiency in inversely associated with
type-2 diabetes.

Keywords


Type-II diabetes mellitus, Vitamin D deficiency, hypocalcaemia, blood sugarv

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