Frequency and Types of Parapneumonic Effusion in Pleural Fluid Specimen
AbstractBackground: Parapneumonic effusion (PPE) is exudative pleural effusion resulting from community acquired pneumonia or lungabscess. In USA about one million people develop PPE annually. The better outcome of PPE depends on early diagnosis andtimely management.Objective: The aim of this study was to see the frequency and types of parapneumonic effusion in pleural fluid specimen usingdifferent laboratory parameters in pneumonia patients.Material and Methods: This study was conducted in Shah Noor Medical laboratory in Bannu KPK. Pakistan. Pleural fluidspecimen were collected from both public and private sectors hospitals of the territory. A total of 422 pleural effusions werecollected. These fluid were analysed for transudate, exudate with possible causes. The PPE were subtyped into simple,complicated and empyema on the basis of color, PH value, ratio of blood and fluid glucose level, total protein level, total anddifferential leukocyte count of fluid, Gram's stain and culture for presence or absence of bacteria. The pleural fluid color wasexamined for subjective grades of turbidity i.e. mild, moderate and marked for simple, complicated and empyema respectively. PHcut off value was 7.2 for simple and complicated PPE, glucose cut off value of 52mg/dl for simple and complicated PPE. Gram'sstain and culture was performed by using conventional Gram's stain and different culture media for differention of simple fromcomplicated PPE and emyema. Inclusion criteria was all pleural effusions either exudative or transudative. Exclusion criteria wasinsufficient pleural fluid. The data was collected and analysed for frequencies with percentages and mean with standard deviationusing SPSS version 20.Results: In this study a total of 422 pleural fluid out of which 77(18.24%) PPE cases were analysed. The age range was from11-80 years with mean age of 54.34±9.22 years. Amongst these PPE 41 were from males patients and 36 from femalepatients. Simple PPE were 21(27.30%), complicated PPE 37(48.05%) and empyema were 29(37.7%).Conclusion: The laboratory parameters for differentiation of different types of parapneumonic effusion have significant role indifferentiation and management of different types of PPE and must be analysed in laboratory to separate the subtypes and guidethe physician about using non invasive and invasive management modalities.
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