Preventable Male Infertility: Identifying the Modifiable Risk Factors


  • Nighat Musa Bacha Khan Medical College Mardan, Pakistan
  • Waseeq Ullah Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Naeemullah Saidu Medical College, Swat, Pakistan
  • Rubeena Gul Khyber Medical College Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Aziza Alam Khyber Medical College Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Sherbaz Khan Swat Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Center, Saidu Sharif, Swat Pakistan



Background: Infertility is a global health issue, with both genders having equal contribution. Approximately 15% of couples having difficulty to conceive after one year of consistent, unprotected sexual activity, infertility.
Objectives: To identify the modifiable risk factors of male infertility in patients visiting a private hospital of Peshawar.
Material and Methods: The study was a descriptive Cross-sectional of six months duration. A total sample size of 733 married male patients visiting private hospital were included and those who were reluctant to participate were excluded. Structured questionnaire were filled. Non probability convenience sampling technique was used and data was analyzed using SPSS
version 22
Results: Out of 733 sample size 397(54%),336 (45.9%) had secondary and primary infertility, respectively. Risk factors, like obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, congenital anomalies and varicocele were linked to infertility with p valve < 0.05. The majority 568 (77.5%) had normal semen count, Oligospermia and Azoospermia were 11%.
Conclusion: Our study concluded that smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity, semen abnormalities and congenital anomalies were related to both primary and secondary infertility among men in Peshawar.
Keywords: Male infertility, Obesity, Risk factors, Semen analysis, Semen abnormalities, Tobacco use.


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How to Cite

Nighat Musa, Waseeq Ullah, Naeemullah, Rubeena Gul, Aziza Alam, Sherbaz Khan. Preventable Male Infertility: Identifying the Modifiable Risk Factors. J Saidu Med Coll Swat [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 21 [cited 2024 Jul. 12];14(2):79-83. Available from:

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