Prevention of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome by Antenatal Steroid Administration
Background: Exposure to antenatal steroids (A.N.S.) decreases the incidence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and other morbidities in premature infants. If left untreated, death may occur from progressive hypoxia and respiratory failure. In survivors, resolution begins between 2 to 4 days.
Objective: To determine the efficacy of antenatal steroids in preventing respiratory distress syndrome in premature neonates.
Material and Methods: A randomized trial, analytical study with a sample size of 152 was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. The study duration was from 16th July 2022 to 18th June 2023. The study included neonates born at 24 to 34 weeks of gestation. Neonates born at fewer than 34 (24 to 34 weeks) weeks gestation were given 3 or 4 mL of surfactant from lipids taken from calf lung lavage. The proteins were decreased from more than 10% to less than 1% of the phospholipid weight using the lipid extraction procedure. The chi-square test was used.
Results: Analysis was performed for the 152 VLBW infants the infants who received antenatal corticosteroids was 37 to 45% were gestational age 2434 weeks. While infants who received surfactant decreased gradually as gestational age increased. A significant decrease in surfactant used in the late period, with a 510% reduction in each gestational group.
Conclusion: This study reaffirms the value of administering antenatal steroids to premature neonates. This study showed the potential use of ante natal steroids has effectively mitigated respiratory distress syndrome. These findings underscore the significance of antenatal corticosteroid therapy in reducing respiratory morbidity in preterm neonates and emphasize its role in enhancing lung maturation and neonatal outcomes.
Keywords: Antenatal corticosteroids, Preterm infants, Respiratory distress syndrome, Surfactant, Very low birth weight.
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