Evaluation of Second Canals in Mandibular Incisors using Magnification: A Cross-Sectional Study


  • Rozi Afsar Saidu college of Dentistry, Swat
  • Asma Ali Bacha khan college of Dentistry Mardan
  • Badshah Afsar Saidu college of Dentistry
  • Umar Nasir Kohat institute of Dental science
  • Bibi Maryam Kohat institute of Dental science




Background: It is essential to have a thorough understanding of the typical anatomy of the root canal system, as well as the various common and uncommon anatomical variations, in order to achieve successful treatment outcomes.
Objective: To determine the frequency and pattern of two canals in mandibular incisors using magnifying loupe
Material and Methods: This study at Saidu College of Dentistry in Swat included 385 participants selected consecutively. Inclusion criteria were males and females aged 20-60 years with mandibular incisor-related dental conditions. Exclusion criteria were local anesthesia allergies, internal root resorption, calcified canals, and pregnancy. The number of canals was recorded radiographically using the SLOBE technique. Canals were classified using Vertucci's system. Canal frequencies were analyzed by gender and tooth types using chi-square tests (p<0.05).
Results: The mean age was 33.97±11.10 years. Of the participants, 215 (55.84%) were males. The highest numbers of tooth types were found among the left lateral incisors (n=148, 38.44%) and left central incisors (n=122, 31.69%). Second canal was found 139 participants (36.10%). Among these, Type I
(n=84, 21.82%) was the most common two-canal pattern, followed by Type III (n=36, 9.35%). When analyzing the canal types within the single canal group, Type I was the most prevalent in both males (23.26%) and females (20.00%). The frequencies of Types II, III, and IV were similar between genders and did not exhibit significant differences (p=0.865). The distribution of canal types varied across tooth types, with Type I being the most common, but not statistically significant (p=0.652).
Conclusion: The presence of a second canal in the mandibular incisors is quite common. The most common pattern of two canals, according to the Vertucci classification, was Type I, followed by Type III.
Keywords: Magnification, Mandibular incisors, Second canals, Vertucci classification

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How to Cite

Rozi Afsar, Ali A, Afsar B, Nasir U, Maryam B. Evaluation of Second Canals in Mandibular Incisors using Magnification: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Saidu Med Coll Swat [Internet]. 2023 Sep. 27 [cited 2023 Nov. 28];13(3):122-8. Available from: https://jsmc.pk/index.php/jsmc/article/view/806